Neurofeedback Publications

Journal Articles

학술연구 논문 발표 출판물

EEG and behavioral changes in a hyperkinetic child concurrent with training of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR)

Joel F. Lubar, Margaret N. Shouse


Reduced seizure incidence coupled with voluntary motor inhibition accompanied conditioned increases in the sensorimotor rhythm(SMR), a 12–14 Hz rhythm appearing over rolandic cortex. Although SMR biofeedback training has been successfully applied to various forms of epilepsy in humans, its potential use in decreasing hyperactivity has been limited to a few cases in which a seizure history was also a significant feature. The present study represents a first attempt to explore the technique's applicability to the problem of hyperkinesis independent of the epilepsy issue. The results of several months of EEG biofeedback training in a hyperkinetic child tend to corroborate and extend previous findings. Feedback presentations for SMR were contingent on the production of 12–14-Hz activity in the absence of 4–7-Hz slow-wave activity. A substantial increase in SMR occurred with progressive SMR training and was associated with enhanced motor inhibition, as gauged by laboratory measures of muscular tone(chin EMG) and by a global behavioral assessment in the classroom. Opposite trends in motor inhibition occurred when the training procedure was reversed and feedback presentations were contingent on the production of 4–7 Hz in the absence of 12–14-Hz activity. Although the preliminary nature of these results is stressed, the subject population has recently been increased to establish the validity and generality of the findings and will include the use of SMR biofeedback training after medication has been withdrawn. This research was a segment of the junior author's dissertation research.

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Publications and Scientific Posters:

ADHD: Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 128(5), 2011–2654.American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2011).

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Efficacy ofneurofeedback treatment in ADHD: The effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: A meta-analysis. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 40(3), 180–189.Arns, M., de Ridder, S., Strehl, U., Breteler, M., & Coenen, A. (2009).

Evaluation of neurofeedback in ADHD: The long and winding road. Biological Psychology, 95, 108–115.Arns, M., Heinrich, H., & Strehl, U. (2014).

Neurofeedback in ADHD: A single-blind randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 20, 481–491. Bakhshayesh, A. R., Hansch, S., Wyschkon, A., Rezai, M. J., & Esser, G. (2011).

Parietal foci for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Targets for LORETA neurofeedback with outcomes. Biofeedback Magazine: Special issue on QEEG and Treatment Approaches for ADHD, June 2014. Cannon, R. L. (in press).

LORETA neurofeedback in the precuneus: Operant conditioning in basic mechanisms of self-regulation. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience,Cannon, R. L., Baldwin, D., Diloreto, D., Phillips, S., Shaw, T. L., & Levy, J. J. (2014).

EEG biofeedback training and attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder in an elementary school setting. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4, 5–27.Carmody, D. P., Radvanski, D. C., Wadhwani, S., Sabo, J. J., & Vergara, L. (2001).

Progress in efficacy studies of EEG biofeedback for ADHD. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, Toronto, Canada. deBeus, R. (2006).

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Controlled evaluation of a neurofeedback training of slow cortical potentials in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 3, 35. Drechsler, R., Straub, M., Doehnert, M., Heinrich, H., Steinhausen, H., & Brandeis, D. C. (2007).

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Distinct EEG effects related to neurofeedback training in children with ADHD: A randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 74, 149–157. Gevensleben, H., Holl, B., Albrecht, B., Schlamp, D., Kratz, O., Studer, P., … Heinrich, H. (2009b).

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Efficacy and safety of immediate release methylphenidate treatment for preschoolers with ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 1284–1293. Greenhill, L., Kollins, S., Abikoff, H., McCraken, J., Riddle, M., Swanson, J., … Cooper, T.(2006).

What is neurofeedback: An update. Journal of Neurotherapy, 15, 305–336. Hammond, D. C. (2011).

Training of slow cortical potentials in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evidence for positive behavioral and neurophysiological effects. Biological Psychiatry, 55(7), 772–775. Heinrich, H., Gevensleben, H., Freisleder, F. J., Moll, G. H., & Rothenberger, A. (2004).

Nonpharmacological treatments for ADHD: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Attention Disorders, 18(4), 275–82.Hodgson, K., Hutchinson, A. D., & Denson, L. (2012).

Specific effects of neurofeedback on impulsivity in ADHD. Kindheit und Entwicklung, 18, 95–104. Holtmann, M., Grasmann, D., Cionek-Szpak, E., Hager, V., Panzer, N., Beyer, A., & Stadler, C. (2009).

Disruptive insights in psychiatry: Transforming a clinical discipline. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 119(4), 700–705. Insel, T. R. (2009).

3-year follow-up of the NIMH MTA study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(8), 989–1002.Jensen, P. S., Arnold, L. E., Swanson, J. M., Vitiello B., Abikoff, H. B., Greenhill, L. L., …Hur, K. (2007).

Neurofeedback for children with ADHD: A comparison of SCP and Theta/Beta protocols. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 32, 73–88.Leins U., Goth G., Hinterberger T., Klinger, C., Rumpf, N., & Strehl, U. (2007).

Effect of neurofeedback training on the neural substrates of selective attention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroscience Letters, 394, 216–221. Levesque, J., Beauregard, M., & Mensour, B. (2006).

EEG & behavioral changes in a hyperkinetic child concurrent with training of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR): A preliminary report. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 3, 293–306. Lubar, J. F., & Shouse, M. N. (1976).

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The effectiveness of neurofeedback and stimulant drugs in treating AD/HD: Part II. Replication. Applied Psychophysiological Biofeedback, 29(4), 233–243. Rossiter, T. (2004).

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A.D.H.D. experts re-evaluate study’s zeal for drugs. The New York Times. Retrieved from Schwarz, A. (2013, December 29).

Neurofeedback and basic learning theory: Implications for research and practice. Journal of Neurotherapy, 15, 292–304.Sherlin, L. H., Arns, M., Lubar, J., Heinrich, H., Kerson, C., Strehl, U., & Sterman, M. B.(2011).

Operant conditioning of EEG rhythms and Ritalin in the treatment of hyperkinesis. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 4, 299-312.Shouse, M. N. & Lubar, J. F. (1979).

Nonpharmacological interventions for ADHD: Systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of dietary and psychological treatments. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(3), 275–289.Sonuga-Barke, E. J., Brandeis, D., Cortese, S., Daley, D., Ferrin, M., Holtmann, M., … & Sergeant, J. (2013).

Neurofeedback and cognitive attention training for children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in schools. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 35, 18–27. Steiner, N. J., Frenette, E. C., Rene, K. M., Brennan, R. T., & Perrin, E. C. (2014a).

In-school neurofeedback training for ADHD: Sustained improvements from a randomized control trial. Pediatrics, 133, 483–492. Steiner, N. J., Frenette, E. C., Rene, K. M., Brennan, R. T., & Perrin, E. C. (2014b).

Selfregulation of slow cortical potentials: A new treatment for children with attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics, 118, 1530–1540.Strehl, U., Leins, U., Goth, G., Klinger, C., Hinterberger, T., & Birhaumer, N. (2006).

Neurofeedback in children with ADHD: Specific event related potential findings of a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Neurophysiology, 122, 942–950. Wangler, S., Gevensleben, H., Albrecht, B., Studer, P., Rothenberger, A., Moll, G. H., &Heinrich, H. (2011).